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By W. Rozhov. William Woods University.

Reinforcement in Social Dilemmas The basic principles of reinforcement buy generic omnicef 300mg online, reward purchase 300mg omnicef mastercard, and punishment have been used to help understand a variety of human behaviors (Rotter, 1945; Bandura, 1977; Miller & Dollard, [15] 1941). The general idea is that, as predicted by principles of operant learning and the law of effect, people act in ways that maximize theiroutcomes, where outcomes are defined as the presence of reinforcers and the absence of punishers. Consider, for example, a situation known as the commons dilemma, as proposed by the ecologist [16] Garrett Hardin (1968). Hardin noted that in many European towns there was at one time a centrally located pasture, known as the commons, which was shared by the inhabitants of the village to graze their livestock. The problem was that each individual who owned livestock wanted to be able to use the commons to graze his or her own animals. However, when each group member took advantage of the commons by grazing many animals, the commons became overgrazed, the pasture died, and the commons was destroyed. Although Hardin focused on the particular example of the commons, the basic dilemma of individual desires versus the benefit of the group as whole can also be found in many contemporary public goods issues, including the use of limited natural resources, air pollution, and public land. In large cities most people may prefer the convenience of driving their own car to work each day rather than taking public transportation. Yet this behavior uses up public goods (the space on limited roadways, crude oil reserves, and clean air). A social dilemma such as the commons dilemma is a situation in which the behavior that creates the most positive outcomes for the individual may in the long term lead to negative consequences for the group as a whole. The dilemmas are arranged in a way that it is easy to be selfish, because the personally beneficial choice (such as using water during a water shortage or driving to work alone in one‘s own car) produces reinforcements for the individual. The paradox, of course, is that if everyone takes the personally selfish choice in an attempt to maximize his or her own outcomes, the long- term result is poorer outcomes for every individual in the group. Each individual prefers to make use of the public goods for himself or herself, whereas the best outcome for the group as a whole is to use the resources more slowly and wisely. One method of understanding how individuals and groups behave in social dilemmas is to create such situations in the laboratory and observe how people react to them. The best known of these [17] laboratory simulations is called theprisoner‘s dilemma game (Poundstone, 1992). This game represents a social dilemma in which the goals of the individual compete with the goals of another individual (or sometimes with a group of other individuals). Like all social dilemmas, the prisoner‘s dilemma assumes that individuals will generally try to maximize their own outcomes in their interactions with others. In the prisoner‘s dilemma game, the participants are shown a payoff matrix in which numbers are used to express the potential outcomes for each of the players in the game, given the decisions each player makes. The payoffs are chosen beforehand by the experimenter to create a situation that models some real-world outcome. Furthermore, in the prisoner‘s dilemma game, the payoffs are normally arranged as they would be in a typical social dilemma, such that each individual is Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. In its original form, the prisoner‘s dilemma game involves a situation in which two prisoners (we‘ll call them Frank and Malik) have been accused of committing a crime. The police believe that the two worked together on the crime, but they have only been able to gather enough evidence to convict each of them of a more minor offense. In an attempt to gain more evidence, and thus to be able to convict the prisoners of the larger crime, each of the prisoners is interrogated individually, with the hope that he will confess to having been involved in the more major crime, in return for a promise of a reduced sentence if he confesses first. Each prisoner can make either the cooperative choice(which is to not confess) or the competitive choice (which is to confess). The incentives for either confessing or not confessing are expressed in a payoff matrix such as the one shown in Figure 7. The top of the matrix represents the two choices that Malik might make (to either confess that he did the crime or not confess), and the side of the matrix represents the two choices that Frank might make (also to either confess or not confess). The payoffs that each prisoner receives, given the choices of each of the two prisoners, are shown in each of the four squares. The matrix indicates the outcomes for each prisoner, measured as the number of years each is sentenced to prison, as a result of each combination of cooperative (don’t confess) and competitive (confess) decisions. If both prisoners take the cooperative choice by not confessing (the situation represented in the upper left square of the matrix), there will be a trial, the limited available information will be used to convict each prisoner, and they each will be sentenced to a relatively short prison term of three years.

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After 5 minutes of shoveling generic omnicef 300 mg free shipping, he feels short of breath buy omnicef 300mg, chest pain, and then passes out. While playing a match of tennis, a 56-year-old man with a medical history significant only for acid reflux disease starts to feel substernal chest pain that radiates into his left arm and shortness of breath. His pain feels better after drinking antacid, but since it is not completely resolved, his partner calls 911. You order a chest radiograph and send his blood work to the laboratory for analysis. Relief of symptoms by antacids essentially rules out a cardiac cause of his chest pain. A 22-year-old college student went to the health clinic complaining of a fever over the last 5 days, fatigue, myalgias, and a bout of vomiting and diarrhea. The clinic doctor diagnosed him with acute gastroenteritis and told him to drink more fluids. She is admitted to the hospital and diagnostic testing reveals min- imal coronary atherosclerotic disease. Which of the following is the most appropriate medication to treat this patient’s condition? Prior to pass- ing out, she describes feeling lightheaded and dizzy and next remembers being in the ambulance. While discussing a case presentation with a medical student, a nearby patient who just returned from getting an ankle radiograph done yells out in pain. Physical examination reveals crackles mid- way up both lung fields and a new holosystolic murmur that is loudest at the apex and radiates to the left axilla. The patient does not have hypertension or diabetes mellitus and takes no prescription medications. A friend states that the patient just dropped to the ground shortly after scoring a basket on a fast-break. On examination, you note a prominent systolic ejection murmur along the left sternal border and at the apex. You suspect the diagnosis and ask the patient to perform the Valsalva maneuver while you auscultate his heart. Which of the following is most likely to occur to the intensity of the murmur with this maneuver? The patient complains of acute onset right-sided chest pain that is sharp in character and worse with inspiration. A 57-year-old man complains of chest palpitations and lightheaded- ness for the past hour. Five years ago he underwent a cardiac catheterization with coronary artery stent placement. Which of the following is the most appropriate medication to treat this dysrhythmia? In the past, he experienced chest discomfort after walking 20 minutes that resolved with rest. The episodes of chest pain this morning occurred while he was reading the newspaper. His wife states that he was well until she found him suddenly slump- ing in the chair and losing consciousness for a minute. The patient recalls having some chest discomfort and shortness of breath prior to the episode. As you are examining the patient described in the previous question, he starts to complain of chest discomfort and shortness of breath and has another syncopal episode. The most appropriate initial management includes placing the patient on a cardiac monitor to detect dysrhythmias, establish intravenous access, provide supplemental oxygen, and administer aspirin. This chaotic activity can lead to reduced cardiac output from a loss of coordinated atrial contractions and a rapid ventricular rate, both of which may limit diastolic filling and stroke volume of the ventricles. In general, a patient with stable atrial fibrillation under- goes an echocardiogram to evaluate for thrombus. If no clot is seen on echocardiogram, then heparin is administered and cardioversion can take place immediately.

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Greene omnicef 300 mg with mastercard, have studied preschoolers at the Bing Nursery School on the Stanford campus buy 300 mg omnicef amex. They have also Forensic psychologists often work within the judi- studied elementary-school and college students. In re- cial system in such diverse areas as determining an in- cent years, Flavell has researched and developed his the- mate’s readiness for parole; evaluation of Austrian psychoanalyst and pioneer in the field of child psychoanalysis; daughter of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Systematic representation of data, arranged so that the observed frequency of occurrence of data falling within certain ranges, classes, or categories, is shown. Children realize that they ness of physical difference is followed by awareness of are male or female and are aware of the gender of others the cultural differences between males and females and by the age of three. However, at these ages they still do identification with the parent of the same sex, whose be- not understand that people cannot change genders the havior the child begins to imitate. Like its female gender is permanent, which occurs at about the age of counterpart, which Freud termed the Electra complex, seven. At this point they start the behavior of the Oedipus complex revolves around a child’s wish to members of their own sex. Although it has been support- possess the parent of the opposite sex, while simultane- ed by some research studies, Kohlberg’s theory has also ously wishing to eliminate the parent of the same sex, been criticized on the grounds that children do show cer- who is perceived as a rival. This cestuous desires toward his mother, while regarding his points to the fact that there are others factors, such as father as a rival for her affections. Fearing that the father parental , that influence the adoption of will cut off his penis in retaliation—a phenomenon sex-typed behavior. Freud called castration anxiety—the boy represses his forbidden desires and finally comes to identify with the father, internalizing his values and characteristics, which form the basis for the child’s. In the female version of this theory, the young girl’s discovery of sexu- al difference results in penis envy, which parallels castra- tion anxiety in boys. The girl blames her mother for de- priving her of a penis, and desires her father because he possesses one. As in the Oedipus complex, the girl even- tually represses her incestuous desires and identifies with Influenced by a combination of biological and soci- the same-sex parent (in this case, the mother). Once estab- pecially by feminist critics who reject its assumption that lished, it is generally fixed for life. Girls mature faster than boys, are physically caregiver, which leads to a greater sense of interrelated- healthier, and are more advanced in developing oral and ness in girls, who identify with the mother and go on to written linguistic skills. Boys are generally more ad- reproduce the same patterns of mothering in their own vanced at envisioning and manipulating objects in space. This “reproduc- larger groups and more space than the play of girls the tion of mothering,” being both biologically and sociologi- same age. In spite of conscious attempts to reduce sex cally determined, is at least theoretically open to the pos- role stereotyping in recent decades, boys and girls are sibility of change if patterns of parenting can be altered. The way adults play with infants has been found to proached in different terms by differ based on gender—girls are treated more gently (1927-1987), who formulated the concept of and approached more verbally than boys. As children , the awareness that gender remains fixed grow older, many parents, teachers, and other authority throughout a person’s lifetime. Kohlberg noted that figures still tend to encourage independence, while children are aware of their own gender and the , and exploration more in boys and expressivity, nur- gender of others by the age of three, they do not really turance, and obedience in girls. In reality, people who act silly or respond to instructions to do foolish things do so because they want to. The hypno- tist creates a setting where the subject will follow sug- gestions—but the subject must be willing to cooperate. The subject has control of the process of hypnosis, with the hypnotist simply guiding him or her. In modern times, the first scientist to test mental ability was ,aFrench psycholo- One feature that characterizes the newly developing gist who devised an intelligence test for children in 1905, concept of intelligence is that it has broader meaning based on the idea that intelligence could be expressed in than a single underlying trait (e. Binet created the concept of “mental age,” berg and Gardner’s emergent ideas suggest that any sim- according to which the test performance of a child of av- ple attempt at defining intelligence is inadequate given erage intelligence would match his or her age, while a the wide variety of skills, abilities, and potential that gifted child’s performance would be on par with that of people manifest. Binet’s test was intro- early years of intelligence testing have recurred repeat- duced to the United States in a modified form in 1916 by edly throughout this century. The scoring system of the new test, de- of the relative effects of versus , vised by German psychologist William Stern, consisted the degree to which intelligence can change, the extent of dividing a child’s by his or her chronolog- of cultural bias in tests, and even whether intelligence ical age and multiplying the quotient by 100 to arrive at tests provide any useful information at all.

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Brain: Ventricular System 113 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 11 12 Dissection of the brain (superior view of the lateral ventricle and of the subcortical nuclei of the brain) generic 300 mg omnicef free shipping. Cerebellar peduncles have been 8 Amygdaloid body severed buy 300mg omnicef with mastercard, cerebellum and cerebral cortex have been removed. X) 14 Inferior olive 15 Medulla oblongata 16 Lentiform nucleus 17 Anterior commissure 18 Tail of caudate nucleus 19 Superior colliculus 20 Inferior colliculus 21 Trochlear nerve (n. Brain: Coronal and Cross Sections 117 10 1 61 61 25 36 Coronal section through the brain at the level of the inferior colliculus (posterior aspect). Cross section of the midbrain (mesencephalon) at the level of the superior colliculus (superior aspect). Brain: Horizontal Sections 119 1 Caudate nucleus 2 Lobus insularis (insula) 3 Lentiform nucleus 4 Claustrum 5 External capsule 6 Internal capsule 7 Thalamus 8 Inferior sagittal sinus 9 Superior sagittal sinus 10 Skin of scalp 11 Falx cerebri 12 Calvaria (diploe of skull) 13 Genu of corpus callosum 14 Anterior horn of lateral ventricle 15 Septum pellucidum 16 Column of fornix 17 Choroid plexus of third ventricle 18 Splenium of corpus callosum 19 Entrance to inferior horn of lateral ventricle with choroid plexus 20 Optic radiation 21 Third ventricle Horizontal section through the head at the level of third ventricle of internal capsule and neighboring nuclei. Brain: Horizontal Sections 121 1 Upper lid (tarsal plate) 2 L ns 3 Ethmoidal sinus 4 Optic nerve (n. The outer and middle ear and auditory ossicles and tube are shown (anterior aspect). Outer ear 1 Auricle 2 Lobule of auricle 3 Helix 4 Tragus 5 External acoustic meatus Middle ear 6 Tympanic membrane 7 Malleus 8 Incus 9 Stapes 10 Tympanic cavity 11 Mastoid process 12 Auditory tube 13 Tensor tympani muscle Inner ear 14 Anterior semicircular duct 15 Posterior semicircular duct 16 Lateral semicircular duct 17 Cochlea 18 Vestibulocochlear nerve 19 Petrous part of the temporal bone Additional structures 20 Superior ligament of malleus 21 Arcuate eminence 22 Internal carotid artery 23 Anterior surface of pyramid with dura mater Right auditory and vestibular apparatus (anterior aspect). The cochlea and semicircular canals have been further dissected (anterior aspect). Deeper dissection to display facial nerve and lesser and greater petrosal nerves (anterior aspect). Petrosquamous portion has been partly removed 21 Apex of cochlea (cupula) to display the semicircular canals. Malleus and tympanic membrane have been removed; mastoid air cells are opened (left side). External acoustic meatus and facial canal have been opened to expose the chorda tympani (magn. Auditory and Vestibular Apparatus: Middle Ear 127 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frontal section through the petrous part of the left temporal bone at the level of the cochlea (posterior aspect). Medial wall of tympanic cavity and its relation to neighboring structures of the inner ear, facial nerve, and blood vessels (schematic drawing). Malleus Internal ear (labyrinth) 1 Head 17 Lateral semicircular duct 2 Neck 18 Anterior semicircular duct 1 3 Lateral process 19 Posterior semicircular duct 4 Handle 20 Common crus 21 Ampulla 6 Incus 22 Beginning of endolymphatic 5 Articular facet for malleus duct 6 Long crus 23 Utricular prominence 7 Short crus 24 Saccular prominence 8 Body 25 Incus 13 9 Lenticular process 26 Malleus 4 27 Stapes Stapes 28 Cochlea 15 10 Head 14 11 Neck Tympanic cavity 12 Anterior and posterior crura 29 Epitympanic recess 16 13 Base 30 Mastoid antrum 31 Chorda tympani Walls of tympanic cavity 32 Tendon of stapedius muscle 14 Tympanic membrane 33 Round window 15 Promontory (fenestra cochleae) Position and movements of the auditory ossicles 16 Hypotympanic recess of (schematic drawing). Diagram showing the position of the bone partly removed, semicircular canals opened. Auditory and Vestibular Apparatus: Auditory Pathway and Areas 131 1 Left lateral ventricle and corpus callosum 2 Thalamus 3 Pineal gland (epiphysis) 4 Superior colliculus 5 Superior medullary velum and superior cerebellar peduncle 6 Rhomboid fossa 9 7 Vestibulocochlear nerve (n. Cerebellum and posterior part nucleus of the two hemispheres have been removed (dorsal aspect). Auditory areas in the left hemisphere (supero- Red = descending (efferent) pathway (olivocochlear tract of Rasmussen); lateral aspect). Parts of the frontal and parietal lobes green and blue = ascending (afferent) pathways. Levator palpebrae superioris A = Superior rectus muscle D = Lateral rectus muscle muscle has been severed. B = Inferior oblique muscle E = Inferior rectus muscle C = Medial rectus muscle F = Superior oblique muscle 3 Left orbit with eyeball and extra-ocular muscles (anterior aspect). The roof of the orbit has been 5 Superior rectus muscle 16 Nasolacrimal duct removed, the superior rectus muscle and the levator 6 Cornea 17 Inferior oblique muscle 7 Eyeball 18 Nasal bone palpebrae superioris muscle have been severed. V2) 4 Eyeball (sclera) 15 Trochlea and tendon of superior oblique muscle 5 Inferior oblique muscle 16 Superior oblique muscle 6 Inferior rectus muscle and inferior branch of oculomotor 17 Medial rectus muscle nerve 18 Levator palpebrae superioris muscle 7 Infra-orbital nerve 19 Superior rectus muscle 8 Superior rectus muscle and lacrimal nerve 20 Inferior rectus muscle 9 Optic nerve 21 Greater alar cartilage 10 Lateral rectus muscle 22 Supra-orbital nerve and levator palpebrae superioris muscle 11 Ciliary ganglion and abducens nerve (n. If lesions of the chiasma destroy the crossing portions of both retinae (blue and red in the drawing). In fibers of the nasal portions of the retina (B), both temporal the chiasma the fibers from the two retinal portions are fields of vision are lost (bitemporal hemianopsia). The fibers of the two both lateral angles of the chiasma are compressed (C), the eyes remain separated from each other throughout the en- nondecussating fibers from the temporal retinae are tire visual pathway up to their final termination in the cal- affected, resulting in loss of nasal visual fields (binasal carine cortex (21). Destruction of one optic nerve (A) produces visual cortex) result in a loss of the entire opposite field of blindness in the corresponding eye with loss of pupillary vision (homonymous hemianopsia). V) 18 Pituitary gland and infundibulum 27 Trigeminal ganglion Visual Apparatus and Orbit: Layers of the Orbit 141 Middle layer of the left orbit (superior aspect).

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