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Y. Murat. Hobart and William Smith Colleges.

These results are consistent with the idea that discrepancies between the ideal and the actual self lead us to experience sadness best glycomet 500mg, dissatisfaction generic glycomet 500mg overnight delivery, and other depression-related emotions, whereas discrepancies between the actual and ought self are more likely to lead to fear, worry, tension, and other anxiety-related emotions. For participants with low self-concept discrepancies (right bars), seeing words that related to the self had little influence on emotions. For those with high self-concept discrepancies (left bars), priming the ideal self increased dejection whereas priming the ought self increased agitation. Self-discrepancies and emotional vulnerability: How magnitude, accessibility, and type of discrepancy influence affect. One of the critical aspects of Higgins‘s approach is that, as is our personality, our feelings are also influenced both by our own behavior and by our expectations of how other people view us. This makes it clear that even though you might not care that much about achieving in school, your failure to do well may still produce negative emotions because you realize that your parents do think it is important. Based on your understanding of psychodynamic theories, how would you analyze your own personality? Are there aspects of the theory that might help you explain your own strengths and weaknesses? Based on your understanding of humanistic theories, how would you try to change your behavior to better meet the underlying motivations of security, acceptance, and self-realization? Terror management and aggression: Evidence that mortality salience motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others. A new look at defensive projection: Thought suppression, accessibility, and biased person perception. Self-discrepancies and emotional vulnerability: How magnitude, accessibility, and type of discrepancy influence affect. Self-discrepancies as predictors of vulnerability to distinct syndromes of chronic emotional distress. Self-discrepancies and emotional vulnerability: How magnitude, accessibility, and type of discrepancy influence affect. Outline the methods of behavioral genetics studies and the conclusions that we can draw from them about the determinants of personality. Explain how molecular genetics research helps us understand the role of genetics in personality. One question that is exceedingly important for the study of personality concerns the extent to which it is the result of nature or nurture. If nature is more important, then our personalities will form early in our lives and will be difficult to change later. If nurture is more important, however, then our experiences are likely to be particularly important, and we may be able to flexibly alter our personalities over time. In this section we will see that the personality traits of humans and animals are determined in large part by their genetic makeup, and thus it is no surprise that identical twins Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein turned out to be very similar even though they had been raised separately. A gene is the basic biological unit that transmits characteristics from one generation to the next. These common genetic structures lead members of the same species to be born with a variety of behaviors that come naturally to them and that define the characteristics of the species. These abilities and characteristics are known as instincts—complex inborn patterns [1] of behaviors that help ensure survival and reproduction(Tinbergen, 1951). Birds naturally build nests, dogs are naturally loyal to their human caretakers, and humans instinctively learn to walk and to speak and understand language. Rabbits are naturally fearful, but some are more fearful than others; some dogs are more loyal than others to their caretakers; and some humans learn to speak and write better than others do. Personality is not determined by any single gene, but rather by the actions of many genes working together. Furthermore, even working together, genes are not so powerful that they can control or create our personality. Some genes tend to increase a given characteristic and others work to decrease that same characteristic—the complex relationship among the various genes, as well as a variety of random factors, produces the final outcome. Furthermore, genetic factors always work with environmental factors to create personality.

Pine bark extract: A flavonoid that offers antioxidant activity cheap 500mg glycomet mastercard, strengthens capillaries generic glycomet 500 mg online, improves circulation, and supports the integrity of collagen and elastin (proteins in connec- tive tissue that support organs, joints, blood vessels, and muscles). In addition to diosmin and pine bark, other antioxidants to consider are vitamins C and E, bilberry, and grape seed extract. Butcher’s Broom: Improves the strength and tone of the veins, acts as a mild diuretic, and has mild anti-inflammatory effects. Boost intake of fibre and antioxidant-rich foods, and reduce your intake of satu- rated fats, processed foods, and sodium. Exercise regularly, elevate your feet when resting, and avoid standing or sitting in the same spot. While the words “obese” and “overweight” are used synonymously, there is a great difference between these terms in both definition and associated health risk. This term can be misleading because it does not distinguish between body fat and lean muscle mass. For example, it is possible to be overweight without be- ing obese, such as a bodybuilder. Having a greater proportion of muscle mass would make this individual appear overweight according to standard weight/height charts, yet this person could have low body fat and be in good physical shape. There are several methods that are used to determine overweight, obesity, and the level of associated health risks. Body composition can be measured by: Bioelectric impedance: A machine is used to measure an electric signal as it passes through lean body mass and fat. This method is more effective than skin-fold caliper testing, but is not 100 percent accurate. Near infrared technology: Infrared light is shone on the skin (usually bicep area). The reflected light is measured by a special sensor, transmitted into the computer, and translated into percentage of body fat. This method is highly accurate, comparable to underwater weighing, but slightly more expensive than the above two methods. Skin-fold calipers: Measures the thickness of subcutaneous fat at various locations on the body. The measurements obtained are used in special equations to obtain an estimated percent fat value. This method is not very accurate and is dependent upon the skills and judgment of the person performing the test. Below are recommended body fat ranges for women and men along with the ranges considered to be overweight or obese: Women Men Normal 15–25 percent 10–20 percent Overweight 25. Studies have shown that an apple-shaped body, which is defined by abdomi- nal obesity or having a potbelly, greatly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol and blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, and early death. Following are the waist measurements and their corresponding level of risk: Determinations for Body Fat and Weight | 423 For men: • Increased risk: Waist more than 38 inches (97 cm) • Substantially increased risk: Waist more than 40 inches (102 cm) For women: • Increased risk: Waist more than 32 inches (81 cm) • Substantially increased risk: Waist more than 35 inches (89 cm) Men often deposit weight in the waist region, whereas women tend to gain weight around the hips and buttocks, giving them the pear shape. Fat deposited primarily around the hips and buttocks does not carry the same risk as that gained around the midsection. In recent years, researchers have found that abdominal fat, which sur- rounds our internal organs, secretes compounds that trigger inflammation and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other problems. The tendency to deposit fat around the midsection is influenced by a number of factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Physical activity, not smoking, and using unsaturated fat over saturated fat have been shown to decrease the risk of de- veloping abdominal obesity. Also called blood glucose, blood sugar is the fuel used by the cells in the body for energy. On the other hand, research indicates that a low-glycemic diet can promote better blood sugar control. This healthy way of eating can also improve mood and energy levels and, over the long term, may cut the risk of several chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers. This practice has been used for thousands of years for the treatment of a variety of health conditions. While cleansing is not widely embraced by mainstream medicine, it is highly popular and routinely recommended by natural health care practitioners. Toxins are produced in the body during normal functions such as the digestion, but we also get toxins from eating foods containing chemicals (preservatives, dyes, pesticides, and hormones), taking drugs, being exposed to pollution and smoke, and from contact with house- hold cleaners, heavy metals, and other chemicals. There is an intricate system in our bodies that transforms toxins into less harmful compounds.

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The receptors come in many different shapes and respond selectively to different smells cheap glycomet 500 mg without prescription. Like a lock and key quality 500 mg glycomet, different chemical molecules “fit‖ into different receptor cells, and odors are detected according to their influence on a combination of receptor cells. Just as the 10 digits from 0 to 9 can combine in many different ways to produce an endless array of phone numbers, odor molecules bind to different combinations of receptors, and these combinations are decoded in the olfactory cortex. Infants thrive when they are cuddled and attended to, but not if they are deprived of human contact (Baysinger, Plubell, & Harlow, 1973; Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Touch communicates warmth, caring, and support, and is an essential part of the enjoyment we gain from our social [7] interactions with close others (Field et al. The skin contains a variety of nerve endings, combinations of which respond to particular types of pressures and temperatures. When you touch different parts of the body, you will find that some areas are more ticklish, whereas other areas respond more to pain, cold, or heat. The thousands of nerve endings in the skin respond to four basic sensations:Pressure, hot, cold, and pain, but only the sensation of pressure has its own specialized receptors. For instance: The experience of a tickle is caused by the stimulation of neighboring pressure receptors. The experience of wetness is caused by repeated stimulation of cold and pressure receptors. The skin is important not only in providing information about touch and temperature but also in proprioception—the ability to sense the position and movement of our body parts. Proprioception is accomplished by specialized neurons located in the skin, joints, bones, ears, and tendons, which send messages about the compression and the contraction of muscles throughout the body. Without this feedback from our bones and muscles, we would be unable to play sports, walk, or even stand upright. The ability to keep track of where the body is moving is also provided by thevestibular system, a set of liquid-filled areas in the inner ear that monitors the head’s position and movement, maintaining the body’s balance. The semicircular canals sense the rotational movements of the body and the vestibular sacs sense linear accelerations. The vestibular system sends signals to the neural structures that control eye movement and to the muscles that keep the body upright. Experiencing Pain We do not enjoy it, but the experience of pain is how the body informs us that we are in danger. The burn when we touch a hot radiator and the sharp stab when we step on a nail lead us to Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. People who cannot experience pain are in serious danger of damage from wounds that others with pain would quickly notice and attend to. The gate control theory of pain proposes that pain is determined by the operation of two types of nerve fibers in the spinal cord. One set of smaller nerve fibers carries pain from the body to the brain, whereas a second set of larger fibers is designed to stop or start (as a gate would) the flow [8] of pain (Melzack & Wall, 1996). It is for this reason that massaging an area where you feel pain may help alleviate it—the massage activates the large nerve fibers that block the pain [9] signals of the small nerve fibers (Wall, 2000). Experiencing pain is a lot more complicated than simply responding to neural messages, however. We feel pain less when we are busy focusing on a [10] challenging activity (Bantick, Wise, Ploghaus, Clare, Smith, & Tracey, 2002), which can help explain why sports players may feel their injuries only after the game. We also feel less pain [11] when we are distracted by humor (Zweyer, Velker, & Ruch, 2004). And pain is soothed by the brain’s release of endorphins, natural hormonal pain killers. The release of endorphins can explain the euphoria experienced in the running of a marathon (Sternberg, Bailin, Grant, & [12] Gracely, 1998). Different chemical molecules fit into different receptor cells, creating different smells. Postural and movement information is detected by special neurons located in the skin, joints, bones, ears, and tendons, which pick up messages from the compression and the contraction of muscles throughout the body. Which of the six taste sensations do these foods have, and why do you think that you like these particular flavors?

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Instruments are currently These findings verified the conditioning influence available to measure the self-care agency of adoles- of health state on the self-care agency of patients’ cent populations (Denyes generic glycomet 500 mg without prescription, 1982) discount glycomet 500 mg on line, adult populations experience variations in physical and mental health. The availability The conditioning influence of other basic fac- of valid and reliable measures of self-care agency tors on the self-care abilities of clinical and non- has been vital to the advancement of the theoretical clinical populations has been the focus of inquiry component of self-care nursing science. Intervention studies therapeutic self-care demand, self-care agency, and designed to enhance self-care performance are also the self-care actions of individuals with chronic ob- under way. Health state was found to gram of research focused on the self-care of cancer offer significant explanation of variations in the patients who were receiving chemotherapy or radi- self-care actions of this population. Her early descriptive studies clarified universal, developmental, and health deviation self- the health-deviation self-care requisites of this pop- care requisites, Riley (1996) developed a tool to ulation and documented the therapeutic self-care measure the performance and frequency of the self- demand (Dodd, 1982, 1984). More recent work de- care actions of patients with chronic obstructive scribed specific self-care behaviors initiated by pa- lung disease. This tool has the potential to be useful tients receiving these therapies and led to the as an outcome measure in future intervention stud- identification of a patient profile of self-care that ies designed to enhance the self-care abilities of this can be used in practice to target specific patient population. Dodd’s intervention studies Nursing Theory as the basis for her program of re- demonstrated that with targeted information, search with children. She has developed the Child patients can learn more about their treatment and and Adolescent Self-Care Practice questionnaire, can perform more effective self-care behaviors which can be used to assess the self-care perfor- (Dodd, 1997). Children with higher Through her 20-year program of descriptive, pre- self-concept scores were found to perform more dictive, and intervention studies based on self-care self-care activities than children with low self- theory, Dodd’s research has demonstrated how to concept scores (Mosher & Moore, 1998). Investigators have used Orem’s theory to iden- The utility of the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory tify the self-care requisites and self-care capabilities beyond our national borders can be explained in of patients across a broad range of health devia- tions. Based on the theory, Utz and Ramos (1993) The utility of the Self-Care Deficit Nursing have conducted a sequence of studies to explore Theory beyond our national borders can and describe the self-care needs of people with be explained in part by the fact that symptomatic mitral valve prolapse. The self-care Orem’s intention was to develop a general capabilities and the self-care needs (requisites) of theory of nursing that would be useful in persons with rheumatoid arthritis have also been describing and explaining universal nursing described. Duration of illness velop a general theory of nursing that would be (health state) and educational level were found to useful in describing and explaining universal nurs- be related to self-care agency (Ailinger & Dear, ing knowledge. Aish (1993) tested the effect of an Orem- Western civilizations may be further explained by based nursing intervention on the nutritional the inclusion of culture as a primary influence on self-care of myocardial infarction patients. Professor and the activities of self-care are learned according Georges Evers at the Catholic University of Leuven to the beliefs and practices that characterize the in Belgium has developed an extensive program of cultural way of life of the group to which the indi- research based on the theory. The individual first descriptive and explanatory studies of the self-care learns about cultural standards within the family. The theory provides a means to study the types of Orem’s theory is also being applied by Jaarsma self-care needs identified by specific cultural groups and colleagues as a basis for an ongoing program of and the acceptable cultural self-care practices to research with cardiac patients in the Netherlands. With a population of patients promotion self-care within Orem’s Self-Care with advanced heart failure, Jaarsma, Halfens, Deficit Nursing Theory and went on to explore Senten, Saad, and Dracup (1998) identified the through a descriptive study the self-care actions therapeutic self-care demand of this population performed by healthy middle-aged women to pro- and then developed a supportive-educative pro- mote well-being. The women studied were able to gram designed to enhance their self-care abilities. The jority of which were related to the universal self- book Nursing: Concepts of Practice (Orem, 1985) care requisites (Hartweg, 1993). The interview has been translated into Dutch, French, German, guide used with this American population has Italian, Spanish, and Japanese. Whetstone (1987) the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory in nursing sit- and Whetstone and Hansson (1989) also con- uations in Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, ducted cross-cultural comparative studies using Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, self-care concepts. They compared the meanings Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Hong of self-care among Americans, German, and Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Canada, Mexico, Swedish populations. In addition to the cross-cultural comparative re- Moreover, over the past 15 years, the author has search, the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory is been privileged to be a part of an international net- being applied in studies with specific cultural work of nurse scholars and scientists focused on the groups. In an ethnographic study based on con- development of disciplinary knowledge derived cepts within Orem’s theory, Villarruel (1995) ex- from the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Our plored the cultural meanings, expressions, self-care, collaborative work began in 1983 when the author and dependent care actions related to pain with a was invited as a consultant to the faculty of health Mexican American population and commented on sciences at the University of Maastricht in the the theory’s use with this population. Dashiff Netherlands to assist faculty and students in devel- (1992) applied Orem’s theory in her description of oping programs of nursing theory–based research. In 1986, we extended the are currently using the Self-Care Deficit Nursing seminars to include nurses from all parts of Europe.

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