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Multivitamin and mineral complex: Highly recommended because there are many nutri- ents required for healthy blood cells cheap 200mg floxin. Aside from iron floxin 400mg on-line, B12, and folate, a deficiency of vitamin A, C, E, B2, B6, or copper can lead to anemia. Vitamin B12: Supplements are required by those who are deficient or at risk of deficiency such as the elderly, vegetarians, and those with malabsorption conditions (celiac and Crohn’s). Those with malabsorption may benefit from sublingual B12 (small tablet placed under the tongue), which is more readily absorbed. Individuals with pernicious anemia may require B12 injec- tions from their doctor. If deficient, supplement with iron, B12, and folate, along with a complete multivi- tamin and mineral complex. The excitement brought on by these situations is normal, and can actually help improve performance. This condition is among the most common psy- chiatric ailments, affecting 12 percent of Canadians. Feelings of anxiety trigger the body to release stress hormones that prepare you to react to a threat. The heart pumps stronger, breathing is increased, blood is shunted to the extremities to increase strength in the arms and legs, and digestion slows down so the body can reserve resources. Hun- dreds of years ago, this response was experienced occasionally and was vital to our survival. Today, however, stress and anxiety can be persistent and debilitating, with far-reaching consequences on health, leading to high blood pressure and cholesterol, insomnia, mood swings, depression, and other health problems. Some people experience extreme states of anxiety and worry, called panic attacks, which cause heart pounding, shortness of breath, chest pain, sweating, dizziness, and weakness. There are various lifestyle strategies and supplements that can be helpful in re- ducing anxiety and improving emotional well-being. Others include: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Obsessions are persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that are intrusive and inappropriate and cause anxiety or distress. Compul- sions are repetitive behaviours (such as hand washing or checking things) or mental acts (such as counting or repeating words) that occur in response to an obsession or in a ritualistic way. Phobias: A phobia is a significant and persistent fear of objects or situations, such as flying. Post-traumatic stress disorder: Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder include flashbacks, persistent frightening thoughts and memories, anger or irritability in re- sponse to a terrifying experience in which physical harm occurred or was threatened (such as rape, child abuse, or war). Benzodiazepines are the main class of anti-anxiety drugs and include alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Rivotril), diazepam (Valium), and lorazepam (Ativan). How- ever, they are addictive and have numerous side effects, including drowsiness, loss of coordination, dizziness, and impaired memory. Buspirone (Buspar) is a different type of anti-anxiety drug that is less addictive, but that still has side effects, including headache, nervousness, and insomnia. They work by altering the activity of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain. Examples include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), and ven- lafaxine (Effexor). These drugs may take four to six weeks to work, and are not effective for everyone (some experience worsened anxiety). Other side effects include 107 nervousness, headache, nausea, sexual dysfunction, sleep disturbance, and changes in appetite and weight. Professional counselling can help a person develop tools and coping skills to deal with stress and anxiety. One form of therapy that is highly effective for anxiety dis- A order is cognitive behaviour therapy. A therapist works with you to identify distorted thoughts and beliefs that trigger anxiety and you learn to replace negative thoughts and reactions with more positive ones, so that you view and cope with life’s events differently. Drink lots of water and decaffeinated beverages such as herbal teas (lemon balm, passion flower, and chamo- mile are known for their calming properties), or vegetable juices.

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Internal validity refers to the extent to which we can trust the conclusions that have been drawn about the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables (Campbell & [3] Stanley discount floxin 200 mg on-line, 1963) buy discount floxin 200mg online. Internal validity applies primarily to experimental research designs, in which the researcher hopes to conclude that the independent variable has caused the dependent variable. Internal validity is maximized when the research is free from the presence of confounding variables—variables other than the independent variable on which the participants in one experimental condition differ systematically from those in other conditions. Consider an experiment in which a researcher tested the hypothesis that drinking alcohol makes members of the opposite sex look more attractive. Participants older than 21 years of age were randomly assigned either to drink orange juice mixed with vodka or to drink orange juice alone. To eliminate the need for deception, the participants were told whether or not their drinks contained vodka. After enough time had passed for the alcohol to take effect, the participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of pictures of members of the opposite sex. The results of the experiment showed that, as predicted, the participants who drank the vodka rated the photos as significantly more attractive. If you think about this experiment for a minute, it may occur to you that although the researcher wanted to draw the conclusion that the alcohol caused the differences in perceived attractiveness, the expectation of having consumed alcohol is confounded with the presence of alcohol. That is, the people who drank alcohol also knew they drank alcohol, and those who did not drink alcohol knew they did not. It is possible that simply knowing that they were drinking alcohol, rather than the effect of the alcohol itself, may have caused the differences (see Figure 2. One solution to the problem of potential expectancy effects is to tell both groups that they are drinking orange juice and vodka but really give alcohol to only half of the participants (it is possible to do this because vodka has very little smell or taste). In the bottom panel alcohol consumed and alcohol expectancy are confounded, but in the top panel they are separate (independent). Confounding makes it impossible to be sure that the independent variable (rather than the confounding variable) caused the dependent variable. Another threat to internal validity can occur when the experimenter knows the research hypothesis and also knows which experimental condition the participants are in. The outcome is the potential for experimenter bias, a situation in which the experimenter subtly treats the research participants in the various experimental conditions differently, resulting in an invalid confirmation of the research hypothesis. In one study demonstrating experimenter bias, [4] Rosenthal and Fode (1963) sent twelve students to test a research hypothesis concerning maze learning in rats. Although it was not initially revealed to the students, they were actually the participants in an experiment. Six of the students were randomly told that the rats they would be testing had been bred to be highly intelligent, whereas the other six students were led to believe that the rats had been bred to be unintelligent. In reality there were no differences among the rats given to the two groups of students. The rats run by students who expected them to be intelligent showed significantly better maze learning than the rats run by students who expected them to be unintelligent. They evidently did something different when they tested the rats, perhaps subtly changing how they timed the maze running or how they treated the rats. To avoid experimenter bias, researchers frequently run experiments in which the researchers are blind to condition. This means that although the experimenters know the research hypotheses, they do not know which conditions the participants are assigned to. In a double-blind experiment, both the researcher and the research participants are blind to condition. For instance, in a double-blind trial of a drug, the researcher does not know whether the drug being given is the real drug or the Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Double-blind experiments eliminate the potential for experimenter effects and at the same time eliminate participant expectancy effects. While internal validity refers to conclusions drawn about events that occurred within the experiment, external validity refers to the extent to which the results of a research design can be generalized beyond the specific way the original experiment was conducted. Generalization refers to the extent to which relationships among conceptual variables can be demonstrated in a wide variety of people and a wide variety of manipulated or measured variables. Psychologists who use college students as participants in their research may be concerned about generalization, wondering if their research will generalize to people who are not college students. And researchers who study the behaviors of employees in one company may wonder whether the same findings would translate to other companies.

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Although Freud and others have focused on the meaning of dreams generic 400mg floxin visa, other theories about the causes of dreams are less concerned with their content floxin 400 mg low cost. One possibility is that we dream primarily to help with consolidation, or the moving of information into long-term memory [22] (Alvarenga et al. Payne and Nadel (2004) argued that the content of dreams is the result of consolidation—we dream about the things that are being moved into long-term memory. Thus dreaming may be an important part of the learning that we do while sleeping (Hobson, Pace- [25] Schott, and Stickgold, 2000). The activation-synthesis theory of dreaming (Hobson & McCarley, 1977; Hobson, [26] 2004) proposes still another explanation for dreaming—namely, that dreams are our brain’s interpretation of the random firing of neurons in the brain stem. As a result, the cortex strings the messages together into the coherent stories we experience as dreams. Although researchers are still trying to determine the exact causes of dreaming, one thing remains clear—we need to dream. Sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy, may make it hard for us to sleep well. Other theories of dreaming propose that dreaming is related to memory consolidation. If you happen to be home alone one night, try this exercise: At nightfall, leave the lights and any other powered equipment off. Does this influence what time you go to sleep as opposed to your normal sleep time? Consider how each of the theories of dreaming we have discussed would explain your dreams. Stereotypes as judgmental heuristics: Evidence of circadian variations in discrimination. Dream consciousness: Our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep offers insight into abnormalities in the waking brain. Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Healthy older adults’ sleep predicts all-cause mortality at 4 to 19 years of follow-up. Dreams as the expression of conceptions and concerns: A comparison of German and American college students. Paradoxical sleep deprivation impairs acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of a discriminative avoidance task in rats. The brain as a dream state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. Summarize the major psychoactive drugs and their influences on consciousness and behavior. A psychoactive drug is a chemical that changes our states of consciousness, and particularly our perceptions and moods. These drugs are commonly found in everyday foods and beverages, including chocolate, coffee, and soft drinks, as well as in alcohol and in over-the-counter drugs, such as aspirin, Tylenol, and cold and cough medication. Psychoactive drugs are also frequently prescribed as sleeping pills, tranquilizers, and antianxiety medications, and they may be taken, illegally, for recreational purposes. Moderate Moderate Moderate Restlessness, irritability, headache and body aches, tremors, Slowing of many nausea, vomiting, body functions, and severe constipation, Morphine abdominal pain High Moderate Moderate The chemical makeup of respiratory and opioids is similar to the cardiac All side effects of endorphins, the depression, and morphine but neurotransmitters that the rapid about twice as serve as the body‘s development of addictive as “ natural pain reducers. For instance, sleeping pills are prescribed to create drowsiness, and benzodiazepines are prescribed to create a state of relaxation. In other cases psychoactive drugs are taken for recreational purposes with the goal of creating states of consciousness that are pleasurable or that help us escape our normal consciousness. The use of psychoactive drugs, and especially those that are used illegally, has the potential to create very negative side effects (Table 5. This does not mean that all drugs are dangerous, but rather that all drugs can be dangerous, particularly if they are used regularly over long periods of time. Psychoactive drugs create negative effects not so much through their initial use but through the continued use, accompanied by increasing doses, that ultimately may lead to drug abuse.

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We begin this chapter by considering the role of affect on behavior buy floxin 400 mg, discussing the most important psychological theories of emotions purchase floxin 200 mg with visa. We will discuss how the experience of long-term stress causes illness, and then turn to research onpositive thinking and what has been learned about the beneficial health effects of more positive emotions. Finally, we will review some of the most important human motivations, including the behaviors of eating and sex. The importance of this chapter is not only in helping you gain an understanding the principles of affect but also in helping you discover the important roles that affect plays in our everyday lives, and particularly in our mental and physical health. The study of the interface between affect and physical health—that principle that “everything that is physiological is also psychological‖—is a key focus of the branch of psychology known as health psychology. The importance of this topic has made health psychology one of the fastest growing fields in psychology. Velocity toward goal attainment in immediate experience as a determinant of affect. The unconscious regulation of emotion: Nonconscious reappraisal goals modulate emotional reactivity. The most fundamental emotions, known as the basic emotions, are those ofanger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. The basic emotions have a long history in human evolution, and they have developed in large part to help us make rapid judgments about stimuli and to [1] quickly guide appropriate behavior (LeDoux, 2000). The basic emotions are determined in large part by one of the oldest parts of our brain, the limbic system, including the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the thalamus. Because they are primarily evolutionarily determined, the basic emotions are experienced and displayed in much the same way across cultures (Ekman, 1992; [2] Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002, 2003; Fridland, Ekman, & Oster, 1987), and people are quite accurate at judging the facial expressions of people from different cultures. Video Clip: The Basic Emotions Not all of our emotions come from the old parts of our brain; we also interpret our experiences to create a more complex array of emotional experiences. For instance, the amygdala may sense fear when it senses that the body is falling, but that fear may be interpreted completely differently (perhaps even as “excitement‖) when we are falling on a roller-coaster ride than when we are falling from the sky in an airplane that has lost power. The cognitive interpretations that accompany emotions—known as cognitive appraisal—allow us to experience a much larger and more complex set of secondary emotions, as shown in Figure 10. Although they are in large part cognitive, our experiences of the secondary emotions are determined in part by arousal (on the vertical axis of Figure 10. They are determined by both their level of arousal (low to high) and their valence (pleasant to unpleasant). When you succeed in reaching an important goal, you might spend some time enjoying your secondary emotions, perhaps the experience of joy, satisfaction, and contentment. But when your close friend wins a prize that you thought you had deserved, you might also experience a variety of secondary emotions (in this case, the negative ones)—for instance, feeling angry, sad, resentful, and ashamed. You might mull over the event for weeks or even months, experiencing [3] these negative emotions each time you think about it (Martin & Tesser, 2006). Our response to the basic emotion of fear, for instance, is primarily determined by the fast pathway through the limbic system. When a car pulls out in front of us on the highway, the thalamus activates and sends an immediate message to the amygdala. Secondary emotions are more determined by the slow pathway through the frontal lobes in the cortex. When we stew in jealousy over the loss of a partner to a rival or recollect on our win in the big tennis match, the process is more complex. Information moves from the thalamus to the frontal lobes for cognitive analysis and integration, and then from there to the amygdala. We experience the arousal of emotion, but it is accompanied by a more complex cognitive appraisal, producing more refined emotions and behavioral responses. Although emotions might seem to you to be more frivolous or less important in comparison to our more rational cognitive processes, both emotions and cognitions can help us make effective decisions. In some cases we take action after rationally processing the costs and benefits of different choices, but in other cases we rely on our emotions.

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