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Requires controlled photographic development that Does not require either controlled photographic involves a lot of time and enhances the risk of errors purchase lexapro 20mg online. The optical arrangement varies from one instrument to another based on the device used buy 10 mg lexapro otc, and hence the nomenclature also varies, namely : S. Spectrometer Scanning a spectrum Wavelengths (intensities) However, the various commercially available spectrographs may be differentiated solely by the fact whether they make use of either a ‘prism’ or a‘grating’ as the vital dispensing medium. A good ‘spectrograph’ using either a prism or a grating shall be discussed briefly here. A Littrow type spectrograph makes use of a Littrow-type prism exclusively which is made from a single piece of Quartz with its rear-surface mirrored or metallized (with Silver). This sort of prism com- pletely eliminates the polarization effects as the beam of light moves back and forth through the body of the same prism. It is interesting to observe that a typical large Littrow Spectrograph having a single Quartz prism covers a wavelength range from 2000 to 80000 Å. It enormously helps as the ruling of the grating is a lot easier and less complicated. Any rea- gent used in preparing the solution of the substance being examined must be added to the reference solution in the same concentration. Besides, where solids are present in solutions they may give rise to interferences and for that reason the solid content of the solutions must be below 2% wherever possible. Emission spectroscopy has been employed for the analysis of various alloys, namely : aluminium, copper, magnesium, zinc, lead, and tin. It has been used for the analysis of a number of elements, for instance : Na, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Ni and Fe present in various tissues of human beings. Changes in trace-metal concentrations have been studied at length with regard to the ageing process. To determine the extent of elements present in ‘crude oil’ by virtue of the fact that some of these may poison the catalysts used in the cracking-process e. Substantiate your explanation based on the en- ergy-level diagrams for an ‘atom’ and a ‘molecule’. With the help of a neat-labeled circuit diagram explain the following : (a) Direct Current Arc (b) Alternating Current Arc Discuss their procedural steps, merits/demerits explicitely. Differentiate the plus and nega- tive aspects encountered in : (a) Photographic Detector ; and (b) Photomultiplier Detector, briefly. How would you identify the ‘frequencies’ and the ‘intensities’ of emission spectra by the help of : (a) Littrow type spectrograph, (b) Ebert-mounting spectrograph. Enumerate the various applications of ‘Emission Spectroscopy’ with respect to the following entities : (i) analysis of alloy, (ii) analysis of elements in tissues, (iii) analysis of elements in blood samples, (iv) analysis of Zn in pancreas tissue, and (v) elements present in ‘crude oil sample’. Quite a few such gaseous metal atoms are usually raised to a particular high energy level that enables them to allow the emission of radiation characteristics features of the metal : for example-the characteristic flame colourations of metals frequently encountered in simple organic compounds such as : Na-yellow, Ca-brick-red ; Ba-apple-green. It is quite evident that a relatively large proportion of the gaseous metal atoms shall remain in the ground state i. It has been observed that such ground-state atoms shall absorb radiant energy pertaining to their own particular resource wavelength. Therefore, when a light having the same resonance wavelength is made to pass through a flame consisting of such atoms, a portion of the light shall be absorbed accordingly. Furthermore, the extent or degree of absorption would be directly proportional to the total number of ground-state present in the flame. The emission spectrum thus obtained is made up of a number of lines that actually originate from the resulting excited atoms or ions ; and these steps may be shown diagrammatically as represented in Fig- ure 25. The resulting neutral atoms are excited by the thermal energy of the flame which are fairly unstable, and hence instantly emit photons and eventually return to the ground state (i. Boltzmann Equation : The fraction of free atoms which are excited thermally, or in other words, the relationship between the ground-state and the excited-state quantum is exclusively represented by the Boltzmann equation given below : N /N = (g /g ) e–∆E/kT......... Form equation (d) it may be observed that : • Fraction of atoms excited (N1) solely depends upon the temperature of the flame (T), and • Ratio N1/N0 is dependent upon the excitation energy (∆E). These two typical instruments shall be discussed briefly here highlighting their various components and procedural details. In general, Flame Photometers are designed and intended mainly for carrying out the assay of elements like : Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Lithium that possess the ability to give out an easily excited flame spectrum having sufficient intensity for rapid detection by a photocell. Procedure : The compressed and filtered air (A) is first introduced into a Nebulizer (E) which creates a negative pressure (suction) enabling the liquid sample (C) to gain entry into the atomizer (E). Thus, it mixes with the stream of air as a fine droplet (mist) which goes into the burner (G).

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Pyrazinamide* Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Tuberculosis 20mg lexapro with visa, in combinaton with other drugs discount 10mg lexapro with amex. Precautons Hepatc impairment (monitor hepatc functon; (Appendix 7a); renal impairment (Appendix 7d); diabetes mellitus (monitor blood glucose-may change suddenly); gout; pregnancy (Appendix 7c) and lactaton; hypouricemia. Patents or their caretakers should be told how to recognize signs of liver disorder and advised to discontnue treatment and seek immediate medical atenton if symptoms such as persistent nausea, vomitng, malaise or jaundice develop. Adverse Efects Hepatotoxicity including fever, anorexia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, jaundice, liver failure; nausea, vomitng; arthralgia; gout; sideroblastc anaemia; rash, photosensitvity; porphyria, dysuria, thrombocytopenia, hyperplasia, myalgia. Child- 10 to 20 mg/kg body weight daily, same dose for meningococcal carriers but for 4 days. Precautons Reduce dose in hepatc impairment (Appendix 7a); liver functon tests and blood counts required in liver disorders, alcohol dependency, elderly and on prolonged therapy; renal impairment (if dose above 600 mg daily); lactaton; porphyria; discolours sof contact lenses; advise patents on oral contraceptves to use additonal means; interactons (Appendix 6b, 6c, 6d); pregnancy (Appendix 7c); cerebral haemorrhage, visual disturbances. Note: Resumpton of rifampicin treatment afer a long interval may cause serious immunological reactons, resultng in renal impairment, haemolysis, or thrombocytopenia-discontnue permanently if serious adverse efects occur Patents or their caretakers should be told how to recognize signs of liver disorders and advised to discontnue treatment and seek immediate medical atenton if symptoms such as persistent nausea, vomitng, malaise or jaundice develop. Adverse Efects Severe gastrointestnal disturbances includ- ing anorexia, nausea, vomitng and diarrhoea (antbiotc-associated colits reported); head- ache, drowsiness; rashes, fever, infuenza-like syndrome and respiratory symptoms, col- lapse, shock, haemolytc anaemia, acute renal failure and thrombocytopenic purpura-more frequent with intermitent therapy; altera- tons of liver functon-jaundice and potental- ly fatal hepatts (dose related; do not exceed max. Precautons Combined preparaton usually not suitable for use in children; see under Rifampicin and Isoniazid; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Rifampicin + Isoniazid + Ethambutol Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Tuberculosis. Rifampicin + Isoniazid + Pyrazinamide Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Tuberculosis, in combinaton with other drugs. Contraindicatons Combined preparaton not suitable for use in children; see Rifampicin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Rifampicin + Isoniazid + Pyrazinamide + Ethambutol Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Tuberculosis. Streptomycin* Pregnancy Category-D Schedule H Indicatons Tuberculosis, in combinaton with other drugs. Precautons Children-painful injecton, avoid use if possible; renal impairment (Appendix 7d), infants and elderly (dosage adjustment and monitor renal, auditory and vestbular functon and plasma streptomycin concentratons); interactons (Appendix 6c). Adverse Efects Vestbular and auditory damage, nephrotoxicity; hypersensitvity reactons- withdraw treatment; paraesthesia of mouth; rarely, hypomagnesaemia on prolonged therapy; antbiotc-associated colits; also, nausea, vomitng, rash; rarely, haemolytc anaemia, aplastc anaemia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia; pain and abscess at injecton site. Thiacetazone + Isoniazid Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Tuberculosis, in combinaton with other drugs. Precautons See Isoniazid; determine efcacy and toxic- ity of thiacetazone-geographical diferences; hypersensitvity reactons-withdraw treat- ment; Pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects See Isoniazid; thiacetazone causes the following- nausea, vomitng, diarrhoea; hypersensitvity reactons including conjunctvits, vertgo, rashes; fatal exfoliatve dermatts, acute hepatc failure reported; also, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia and aplastc anaemia. Responsibility of ensuring regular and complete treatment of the patent lies with the health system. Twice weekly therapy can also be given but it is not recommended since it does not have margin for error and missing even one dose makes the therapy inefectve. Sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim is the treatment of choice for Pneumocysts carinii pneumonia and is also used for prophylaxis in high-risk patents; pentamidine isothionate is used in patents unresponsive to or intolerant of sulfameth- oxazole with trimethoprim. The treatment of Pneumocysts carinii infectons must only be undertaken with specialist supervision where there are appro- priate monitoring facilites. Toxoplasmosis: Toxoplasmosis is caused by infecton with the protozoan para- site Toxoplasma gondii. Congenital transmission may occur if there is a primary infecton in early pregnancy or if the mother is immunodefcient. Such cases ofen result in spontaneous aborton, fetal death or severe congenital disease. Ocular toxoplasmosis causes chorioretnits and is ofen the result of a childhood infecton that becomes apparent in adulthood. The treatment of choice for toxoplasmosis is pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine; a folate supplement is also given to coun- teract the megaloblastc anaemia associated with these drugs. Patents receiving these drugs require careful monitoring by appropriately trained health professionals in an adequately resourced setng. Rigorous promoton of measures to prevent new infectons remains essental and its need is not diminished by the availability of antretroviral drugs. Efectve therapy requires the simulta- neous use of 3 or 4 drugs; alternatve regimens are necessary to meet specifc requirements at start-up, to substtute for frst-line regimens in cases of intolerance, or to replace failing regimens. The use of fxed-dose preparatons for these combinatons is also recommended if the pharmaceutcal quality is assured and interchangeability with the single products is demonstrated as specifed by the relevant drug regulatory authority.

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Most of the mutational events reported in mammalian cells purchase 5 mg lexapro amex, including point mutations buy discount lexapro 10 mg, chromosomal deletions and exchanges and aneuploidy, can be explained by this activity. Teniposide does not inhibit bacterial topoisomerases and may not mutate bacterial cells by the same mechanism as mammalian cells. It possesses readily oxidizable functions: Teniposide formed phenoxy radical intermediates in the presence of horseradish peroxidase or prostaglandin synthase (Haim et al. The first is that teniposide itself causes the translocations, perhaps through a cytotoxic action. The second possibility for the role of teniposide in causing translocations is that it selects for cells that already have translocations. Chemotherapy has profound effects on the kinetics of the marrow: it causes cell death, forcing many marrow stem cells to divide, which might select for the rare stem cells with a translocation (Knudson, 1992). In the case–control study, the use of other potentially leukaemogenic agents was adjusted for in the analysis; however, the possibility cannot be excluded that interaction occurred between teniposide and those agents. It is unlikely that the large excess risk for acute myeloid leukaemia can be explained fully by misclassification or phenotypic change of the initial haematological malignancy. Other cohort studies have also reported strongly increased risks for acute myeloid leukaemia after treatment of various primary malignancies with teniposide-containing regimens that also included alkylating agents or teniposide-containing regimens in combination with etoposide. In these studies, the possibility cannot be excluded that the excess risk for leukaemia was partly or wholly due to the other agents. About 45% of a radiolabelled dose of teniposide was excreted in the urine, 4–14% occurring as the parent drug. In mice, the pharmacokinetics of teniposide differs from that of etoposide, a closely related drug, with lower clearance, a larger volume of distribution and a longer terminal elimination half-time. The accumulation of teniposide in leukaemic cells in vitro was some 15 times higher than that of etoposide applied at the same concentration. The major dose-limiting toxic effect of teniposide in clinical trials is myelo- suppression, manifest mainly as leukopenia. Less severe effects, including nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea and alopecia, are common; less common effects include transient increases in liver enzyme activity, hypertension and hypersensitivity reactions. Embryo- toxicity and teratogenicity, especially in the heart and central nervous system, have been observed in mice. Teniposide is orders of magnitude more toxic in mammalian than in microbial cells and is mutagenic in mammalian cells. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of teniposide. In reaching this conclusion, the Working Group noted that teniposide causes distinctive cytogenetic lesions in leukaemic cells that can be readily distinguished from those induced by alkylating agents. The short latency of these leukaemias contrasts with that of leukaemia induced by alkylating agents. High-performance liquid chromatography is the most useful analytical tool for analysing mitoxantrone and its metabolites in biological matrices. Ion-pair chromato- graphy and radioimmunoassay have also been used (Beijnen et al. This product is aromatized with chloranil as the oxidant, and it is converted into mito- xantrone hydrochloride by treatment with hydrogen chloride in ethanol (Beijnen et al. Mitoxantrone, a dihydroxyanthracenedione derivative, was the most active of a series of compounds synthesized (Zee-Cheng & Cheng, 1978; Dunn & Goa, 1996). It was found to have anti-tumour activity in advanced breast cancer (often in patients in whom other treatments have failed), non-Hodgkin lymphoma and certain leukaemias. It is still most commonly used in these tumours, typically in combination with other cytotoxic drugs, and has also been used in the treatment of other cancers such as ovarian, prostate and lung cancer (Faulds et al. The typical dose is the equivalent of 12–14 mg/m2 mitoxantrone once every three weeks in patients with lymphomas and tumours of solid tissues, and 12 mg/m2 per day for five days in patients with leukaemia. When mitoxantrone is used in combination with other cytotoxic drugs, these doses are often lower (Dunn & Goa, 1996; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1999). In recent years, mitoxantrone has been used to a limited extent in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, typically at doses lower than those used in malignant disease and on a monthly schedule (Gonsettte, 1996; Millefiorini et al. Studies of Cancer in Humans The Working Group considered only studies in which mitoxantrone was given to patients who did not receive treatments with alkylating agents, with the exception of low doses of cyclophosphamide.

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