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X. Silas. Winston-Salem State University.

Amantadine and rimantadine treated by the administration of valacyclovir and famciclovir generic digoxin 0.25mg without a prescription. But order digoxin 0.25mg, the drug may be used as a preventative sequences of nucleotides that are specifically synthesized to be agent in those people whose immune system will be compro- complimentary with a target sequence of viral ribonucleic acid. By binding to the viral RNA, the oligonucleotide blocks the Another category of antiviral drugs is known as the anti- RNA from being used as a template to manufacture protein. These drugs target those viruses of clinical The use of antiviral drugs is not without risk. Host cell significance called retroviruses that use the mechanism of damage and other adverse host reactions can occur. Thus, the reverse transcription to manufacture the genetic material use of antiviral drugs is routinely accompanied by close clini- needed for their replication. The See also Immunodeficiency diseases; Viruses and responses to development of antiviral drugs has been stimulated by the viral infection efforts to combat HIV. Some anti-HIV drugs have shown promise against hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus. The various antiviral agents are designed to thwart the AAppert, Nicolas FrançoisPPERT, NICOLAS FRANÇOIS (1750-1841) replication of whatever virus they are directed against. One French chef means to achieve this is by blocking the virus from comman- Nicolas Appert gave rise to the food canning industry. Born in deering the host cell’s nuclear replication machinery in order Châlons-sur-Marne, France, around 1750, young Appert to have its genetic material replicated along with the host’s worked at his father’s inn and for a noble family as a chef and genetic material. By 1780 he had set up a confectionery shop in vention of replication will prevent the numbers of viruses from increasing, giving the host’s immune system time to deal Paris, France. Appert became interested in food preservation when the The incorporation of the nucleotide building blocks into French government offered a 12,000-franc prize in 1795 to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) can be blocked using the drug person who could find a way to keep provisions for idoxuridine or trifluridine. Both drugs replace the nucleoside Napoleon’s armies from spoiling in transit and storage. After thymidine, and its incorporation produces a nonfunctional years of experimentation Appert devised a method of putting DNA. So, food in glass bottles that were then loosely corked and this antiviral drug is also an anti-host drug. Vidarabine is immersed in boiling water for lengths of time that varied with another drug that acts in a similar fashion. The drug is incor- the particular food; after boiling, the corks were sealed down porated into DNA in place of adenine. In an age before bacteriology, Appert did not other DNA building blocks. But, because the virus utilizes known as appertization—preserved the food. Appert later set the host’s genetic machinery, stopping the viral replication up his first bottling plant at Massy, south of Paris, in 1804. The French navy successfully used Appert’s products in Another tact for antiviral drugs is to block a viral 1807, and in 1809 Appert was awarded the 12,000-franc prize. This approach has been successfully covery, which he did in his 1810 work The Art of Preserving exploited by the drug acyclovir. The drug is converted in the Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years, which host cell to a compound that can out compete another com- gave specific directions for canning over fifty different foods. Appert, who also invented Arenaviruses contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their the bouillon cube, was financially ruined in 1814 when his genetic material. The viral genome consists of two strands of plant was destroyed during the Napoleonic wars. Little is known about the actual replication of new viral components or about the assembly of these components to produce the new virus ARCHAEA particles. It is known that the new virus exits the host by “bud- Archaea ding” off from the surface of the host cell. When the budding Genes that code for vital cellular functions are highly con- occurs some of the lipid constituent from the membrane of the served through evolutionary time, and because even these host forms the envelope that surrounds the virus. American microbiologist Carl Woese and his col- only known exception is an arenavirus called the Tacaribe leagues obtained sequences of the genes coding for RNA in the virus, which is resident in Artibeus bats. The association subunit of the ribosome from different organisms to argue that between an arenavirus type and a particular species of rodent life on Earth is comprised of three primary groups, or is specific.

He his medical degree from the University of Penn- studied intramedullary nailing with Gerhard sylvania in Philadelphia digoxin 0.25mg free shipping. He performed his intern- Küntscher buy digoxin 0.25 mg with mastercard, the prevention and treatment of skele- ship at Reading Hospital and his externship at the tal infections with Hans Willenegger in Liestal, Hospital for Joint Diseases in New York City. In Switzerland and the treatment of fractures with 1935, he was named an assistant in the Depart- Lorenz Böhler in Vienna. His international travels were Philadelphia Orthopedic Hospital, under A. In he held the position of assistant orthopedic 1956, while walking on a Polish street during a surgeon at Reading Hospital, where his uncle, labor strike, he had to duck to avoid gunfire that Howard L. Leinbach recognized the importance of the England, having responded to the call of Philip work of Ellie and Albin Lambotte, the Belgian Wilson, Sr. Bristow, and Sir Reginald ship with Maurice Müller, who was expanding on Watson-Jones, British orthopedic leaders of that the principles of the Lambottes as he developed time. He performed more than 3,000 primary and revision total hip arthroplasties. He was a founding member of both the Hip Society in the United States and the International Hip Society. In 1966, he received the Governor’s Award as Florida Physician of the Year, and he was selected as Citizen of the Year by the St. In 1993, he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Joint Implant Surgery and Research Foundation, in commemoration of 60 years of surgery. Leinbach decided to study medicine because it deals with human life, and he derived Emile LETOURNEL a lot of pleasure from life. In his office hung a small plaque with the inscription: “The funda- 1927–1994 mental principle of medicine is love. He had been working regularly in the out- his monumental achievements in surgery of the patient clinic of the Bay Pines Veterans Adminis- pelvis and acetabulum is unrivaled in modern tration Hospital until a few days before his death. Leinbach was survived by his wife, Alice; nized as the conclusive source of extensive three daughters: Jenni Adams of Orlando, Judy experience and innovative techniques in the Meserve of St. Petersburg, and Troy Kassing of management of severe pelvic and acetabular Indianapolis; eight grandchildren; and five great- trauma. His only son, Tyler, died in a tragic standing of the complex acetabular fractures and cave-diving accident in 1960. Leinbach once techniques required to treat these difficult injuries said: “I have flown high enough to enjoy looking have defined the predominant principles of surgi- down on the clouds, and my great wife has been cal excellence of fracture surgery. The presentation of his experience in the development of diagno- sis and surgical management of acetabular frac- tures was extraordinary. It was given to a packed audience in the advanced course upper lecture room of the Kongress Halle in Davos. The par- ticipants were in awe of his surgical technique and ability to reduce difficult and extensive fractures. His presentation included numerous examples of anatomic reduction of complex associated acetab- ular fractures with excellent 10–20 year results. These radiographs demonstrated long, twisted reconstruction plates curving around areas of the pelvis (that the majority of the course participants had never visualized), creating a singular educa- 191 Who’s Who in Orthopedics tional experience and a standing ovation. Emile These latter two textbooks are the primary continued to be an immutable participant in the sources of information on surgery of the acetab- advanced courses in Davos and participated in ulum in the English literature and are considered countless AO courses throughout the United the “Bibles” of acetabular surgery. His unique personal- resulted in a complete transformation of our ity and energy were legendary, and he was always understanding and treatment of fractures of the available to answer the most trivial question from acetabulum. His passion and love of Emile Letournel was born on the French island teaching extended worldwide as his results of St. Pierre et Miquelon, situated between New became universally acknowledged. Emile’s per- Foundland and Nova Scotia, on December 4, sonality and professional camaraderie were 1927. He never spoke English while growing up quintessential Letournel, and his dedication to and after finishing secondary school in St. Pierre teaching his techniques to conferences all over the he obtained a scholarship to the French Institute world was the underlying virtue of this great man. During this time period, the war There are many instances in the history of in Europe was at a climax and for safety reasons orthopedic surgery in which an individual the French Institute was moved to Hullswater surgeon has made a significant contribution to a Lake, Cumberland Scotland, near Edinburgh for particular area of surgery that has stood the test the duration of the war. There are very few instances of a sur- et Miquelon alone at the age of 16 on July 27, geon contributing to the specialty of orthopedic 1944 to cross the Atlantic and attend school in and trauma surgery in the complete and life- Scotland.

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The tissue from affected patients has not been able to infect other animals or cell cultures and electron microscopy has not identified viruses purchase 0.25mg digoxin mastercard. More recent attempts using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have demonstrated a wide array of findings quality 0.25mg digoxin, but no consistent picture, with CMV, HSV1, and EBV variably implicated. Rogers and col- leagues reported elevated levels of antibodies to a glutamate receptor (GluR3). They, and others, hypothesized that these antibodies could be highly neurotoxic. This led to a very complex hypothesis concerning the unihemispheric nature of RS. They pro- posed that there was a focal disruption of the blood–brain barrier that permitted GluR3 antibodies to interact with the glutamate receptors. Theorizing that if these antibodies could be eliminated, patients would improve, they treated a number of patients with plasmapheresis. The initial patient, and many others, responded initi- ally to this therapy with a decrease in seizures and improved function. However, over time repeated pheresis did not maintain this improvement and children deteriorated. This theory evokes an extensive lymphocytic infiltration by CD8 killer T cells. There is an extensive astroglial reaction, microglial activation, and cytolysis. CLINICAL ASPECTS Although RS is considered a disorder of childhood and one that affects only a single hemisphere, there have been reported instances of Rasmussen-like conditions that have begun in adulthood or that have involved both hemispheres. Classically, sei- zures begin in the early school years, with a range of onset from the second year of life to mid-teens. The initial seizure can be partial, generalized, or even an episode of status epilepticus. Seizures then typically evolve over time to produce a multifocal or unilateral condition of epilepsia partialis continua that is seen in slightly more than half of individuals with RS. The progression of a seizure is quite different from the well-understood Jacksonian march. Instead, one sees the clinical manifestations of separated areas of cortex firing independently. One can see the foot jerk, then the shoulder, then the thigh, then the hand, and then the face, with no contiguous march along the homunculus. It can almost be visualized as a popcorn effect: suddenly a seizure pops from one area, then another. This is also not like polymyoclonus, because the clonic activity can remain active in one area, but be rhythmically clonic at a different frequency in another area of the body. Another, somewhat less common presentation involves the basal ganglia and one can see expressions of dystonia and choreoathetosis in the setting of RS as well. Invariably, the process continues, resulting in hemiplegia or hemiparesis, homonymous hemianopia and functional deterioration. Neuroimaging has shown considerable utility because over time some degree of atrophy becomes appar- ent. Recent work has suggested that one can assess a hemispheric ratio from MRI studies to determine the degree and rate of atrophy of the hemisphere, with some evi- dence that most of the atrophy occurs in the first year of the disease. However, there is huge variability in RS and some individuals present with extensive atrophy at the time of their first seizure while others display a much slower course of progression. Other newer modalities may be useful, including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in which N-acetyl-aspartic acid (NAA), a marker of neuronal death or injury, has been shown to be decreased beyond what would be expected based simply on atrophy. Other modalities such as diffusion-weighted imaging may also be helpful in the future. At best, it would show slowing over the affected hemisphere with multifocal spikes. At worst, because it can create doubt of the diagnosis, seemingly independent discharges can be seen bilaterally. With careful analysis, large asymmetries are usually apparent, and the spike from the truly abnormal hemisphere can often be seen to be leading the contralateral spike by milliseconds.

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In a similar vein best 0.25mg digoxin, Sarah Nettleton argued that the ‘fallacy of empowerment’ was revealed by the fact that health promotion was invariably oriented towards the least powerful people in society (Nettleton 1995:238) digoxin 0.25mg otc. A number of commentators noted the origins of the ‘healthy cities’ projects in ‘paternalistic and cynical’ ‘community development’ programmes developed by the British colonial office in the 1950s to contain potential unrest, suggesting that establishment concern about preventing inner city revolt after a series of riots in the early 1980s provided the impetus behind community health initiatives (Farrant 1991; Peterson, Lupton 1996). Critics also focused on the potential for discrimination and containment that lay behind concepts of ‘community’. They observed that ‘participation’ often had a token character, which co- opted people into the existing power structure while giving them no real power in making decisions. Thus, while espousing a rhetoric of radical social change, in practice the activists of the new public 80 THE POLITICS OF HEALTH PROMOTION health operated as professionals implementing government policies of an essentially conservative character. While delegates to conferences in exotic international locations endorsed revolutionary declarations, supporters of the new public health at home sought to use these as a lever to press the government into adopting similar policies. A number of domestic influences, emerging more or less directly out of the experience of the previous Labour government, also encouraged the new public health movement. The first was the controversy over ‘health inequalities’ that ran through the 1980s—and remains an issue under New Labour today. In response to growing concern among radical social policy academics about increasing income differentials and their impact on health under the Labour governments of the 1970s, in 1977 health minister David Ennals set up a working group chaired by Sir Douglas Black, president of the Royal College of Physicians. By the time the group had completed its report—in April 1980—the government had changed and Mrs Thatcher was so hostile to the report’s call for a redistribution of resources and a re-orientation of health services to tackle the problems of poverty that it was effectively suppressed (Black 1980). The resulting furore ensured an even bigger readership when The Black Report was briskly published by Pelican (Black 1982). It was re-issued in 1988, together with an extensive update by Margaret Whitehead and an introduction by two members of the original working group, as Inequalities in Health (Townsend, Davidson 1988). The issue of increasing inequalities in income and in indicators of health became a rallying cause for radical critics of the Conservative government in the 1980s, keeping ministers under pressure to bring forward some initiative in this area. In the course of the 1980s a number of influential individuals and agencies encouraged the development of the government’s health promotion policy. The chief medical officer Donald Acheson produced a report recommending an enhanced role for ‘public health doctors’ and also endorsed the WHO approach to monitoring progress in public health by setting targets (Acheson 1988). In 1985 the Kings Fund and the Health Education Council organised a ‘study tour’ to investigate health promotion in North America; a team closely identified with the new public health issued an enthusiastic endorsement of the WHO strategy on their return (Robbins 1987). The following year another multi-disciplinary committee sponsored by the Kings Fund, with the brief to chart progress since Owen’s 81 THE POLITICS OF HEALTH PROMOTION Prevention and Health in 1976, produced a report with the suggestive title The Nation’s Health (Smith et al. This report also welcomed the WHO declarations and chastised the British government for its tardiness in meeting these targets. In its discussion of priority areas, strategies and targets, lifestyles and preventive services, it closely anticipated both the form and substance of the Health of the Nation documents. In the second ‘new and completely revised’ edition in 1991, the authors distinguished between the ‘tradition of limited government responsibility for health and welfare’ of which they disapproved, and the ‘modern, international movement in public health’ with which they strongly identified (Jacobson et al. They further welcomed the emphasis on health promotion in the new GP contract, recognising that this offered ‘new opportunities for developing public health practice’. While key aspects of the new public health agenda attracted powerful supporters in the medical and political establishments, in 1987 its activists launched the Public Health Alliance as a new ‘policy and pressure group’. Based in Birmingham, the alliance aimed ‘to bring together voluntary and community groups, professional associations, local authorities, trade unions and individuals to promote and defend the public health in the UK’ (Scott-Samuel 1989:33). According to Alex Scott-Samuel, like most of the leading figures in the alliance a public health doctor, its most important goal was to make a reality of ‘the principles behind the WHO Health For All strategy: the reduction of inequalities, intersectoral collaboration, primary health care and above all, community participation’ (Scott-Samuel 1989:35). The decisive weakness of the alliance resulted from the wider demise of the left: following the government’s victory over the miners in 1984–85 and Labour’s third consecutive general election defeat in 1987, left- wingers became increasingly isolated and marginalised in all areas of British society, including health. The resulting problem for the alliance’s approach was that its aspirations for ‘community participation’ acquired the character of a fantasy, whereas the dependence of public health professionals on the state remained all too real. In practice, the radical ideals of ‘Health For All’ were rapidly subordinated to the pragmatic imperatives of government health policy. The emergence of The Health of the Nation revealed the balance of forces determining public health policy and the limitations of the radical critique. Kenneth Clarke, as health 82 THE POLITICS OF HEALTH PROMOTION minister, and Donald Acheson, as Chief Medical Officer, both encouraged the evolution of the Kings Fund’s The Nation’s Health into the government’s The Health of the Nation.

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