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By X. Bram. Colby-Sawyer College. 2018.

Division of Nutrition generic lamictal 200 mg otc, Physical Activity lamictal 200mg with mastercard, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Consensus Statement By The American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists And American College Of Endocrinology On The Comprehensive Type 2 Diabetes Management Algorithm – 2016 Executive Summary. Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organizations. Pharmacological Management of Obesity: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. They are written to enable nurses and midwives to reflect on the key points associated with medication management and the related principles, and thus support effective, safe and ethical practice. The professions’ responsibilities, activities and accountability involving medications are intrinsically linked to the individual’s scope of practice. It is, therefore, important to consider the guidelines outlined in this document in association with the Scope of Nursing and Midwifery Practice Framework (An Bord Altranais, 2000), which provides the foundation for this guidance document. The fundamental concepts of accountability, autonomy, competence and delegation that are considered in determining scope of practice also relate to the professions’ role in medication management. Medication management, broadly defined, is the facilitation of safe and effective use of prescription and over-the-counter medicinal products (Bulechek and McCloskey, 1999). The nursing, midwifery, medical and pharmaceutical professions are all participants in medication management and contribute to patient/service-user care. Medication management is a comprehensive intervention which encompasses the knowledge of nurses and midwives (and that of other health care professionals) and the activities that are performed to assist the patient/service-user in achieving the greatest benefit and best outcomes involving medications (Naegle, 1999). The responsibilities of medication management incorporate the assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation of the nursing and midwifery process in collaboration with other health care professionals in providing care. The nurse/midwife should have knowledge of the relevant statutes and legislation regarding the practices of prescribing, dispensing, storing, supplying and administering scheduled medicinal products. There is an obligation to practice according to the legislation governing nursing and midwifery practice, and the current standards and policies of regulatory bodies and health service providers1. Nurses and midwives should be aware of their legal and professional accountability with regard to medication management. It is acknowledged that local need may dictate specific policies and protocols authorising the practices of individuals involved with medicines. The health service provider and health care regulatory and professional organisations have a responsibility to the patient/service-user to assure safe and effective medication management practices. Consultation with the drugs and therapeutics committee (where available), or similar governance structures, and other relevant personnel is advised in determining local policies and protocols involving medicinal products. Medication management practices should be audited on a regular basis to ensure effective and safe patient/service-user care. More recently, the Irish Medicines Board Act (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 2006 (No. However, this authority is based upon the following conditions being satisfied: 1. The nurse/midwife is employed by a health service provider in a hospital, nursing home, clinic or other health service setting (including any case where the health service is provided in a private home). The medicinal product is one that would be given in the usual course of the service provided in the health service setting in which the nurse/midwife is employed. The prescription is issued in the usual course of the provision of that health service. In addition, the 2007 Regulations allow a health service provider to determine further conditions in limiting the prescriptive authority of the nurse/midwife. A specific schedule – Schedule 8 - has been devised, composed of four parts, which names the Schedule 2 and 3 drugs that a nurse/midwife is authorised to prescribe and also dictates administration routes and care settings or conditions2. Additional information concerning nurse and midwife prescribing is 2Refer to Appendix C for Schedule 8 details. The Irish Medicines Board (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 2006, the Medicinal Products (Prescription and Control of Supply) Regulations, 2003 and 2005 and the Misuse of Drugs Acts, 1977 and 1984, and subsequent regulations authorise the nurse/midwife to possess, supply and administer medicinal products to a patient/service-user. The Pharmacy Act, 2007, makes provision for the regulation of pharmacy, including authority for the sale and supply of medicinal products. The key factors to be considered when determining the scope of practice for nursing and midwifery care also apply to the scope of practice for medication management. These include: • Competence • Accountability and autonomy • Continuing professional development • Support for professional nursing and midwifery practice • Delegation • Emergency situations. Standard Each nurse/midwife is expected to develop and maintain competence with regard to all aspects of medication management, ensuring that her/his knowledge, skills and clinical practice are up to date.

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Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on eating behaviour and self-perception in young women undergoing weight management buy lamictal 100mg amex. Moderate carbohydrate buy 100 mg lamictal overnight delivery, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Short term effects of energy restriction and dietary fat sub-type on weight loss and disease risk factors. Effect of dietary macronutrient composition under moderate hypocaloric intake on maternal adaptation during lactation. Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on markers of inflammation in men with metabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A comparison of Mediterranean-style and MyPyramid diets on weight loss and inflammatory biomarkers in postpartum breastfeeding women. Body composition changes and cardiometabolic benefits of a balanced Italian Mediterranean Diet in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on surrogate markers of cholesterol homeostasis in men with the metabolic syndrome. It does not apply to medications used in inpatient settings or administered in one of the Kaiser Permanente medical centers. You may have specific exclusions, copays, or coinsurance amounts that are not reflected in the formulary drug list. Please consult your Evidence of Coverage or Membership Agreement, for additional information regarding your pharmacy benefits, including any specific limitations or exclusions. Specialty drugs are high cost, prescription medications used to treat serious or chronic medical conditions and require special handling, administration or monitoring. The details of your outpatient prescription drug benefit, including any specific limitations or exclusions can be found in your Evidence of Coverage or Membership Agreement. Generic and Brand Name Medications Kaiser Permanente covers generic and brand name drugs. Brand name drugs are manufactured and sold by the pharmaceutical company that originally researched and developed the drug. A non-formulary medication or non-preferred medication is generally available at a higher cost. Please consult your Evidence of Coverage or Membership Agreement for additional information regarding coverage of non-formulary medications specific to your plan. Not all dosage forms and strengths for a particular drug listed are on the Formulary. Please remember that this list is subject to change and will be updated from time to time during the year. Any product not found on the list will be considered non-formulary or non-preferred. Please also note that this formulary applies only to outpatient drugs and self-administered drugs. It does not apply to medical service drugs or medications used in inpatient settings or administered in one of the Kaiser Permanente medical centers. Restrictions on medication coverage Some covered drugs may have additional requirements or limits on coverage. Please consult your Evidence of Coverage or Membership Agreement for additional information regarding your pharmacy benefits, including any specific limitations or exclusions. A drug that isalimited distributiondrugmay only be availableat one ora limitednumberof pharmacies. These medications are often given in high acuity situations and in environments with poor visibility and multiple distractions. Medications with widely differing actions, such as muscle relaxants, vasopressors, and vasodilators, are often used in the course of a single anesthetic, at times simultaneously. It has been recognized for some time that perioperative medication errors 1-4 are a significant source of morbidity and, rarely, mortality.

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Gametocytemia and infectivity to mosquitoes of patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria attacks treated with chloroquine or sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine buy 200 mg lamictal with mastercard. Artesunate reduces but does not prevent post treatment transmission of Plasmodium falciparum to Anopheles gambiae order lamictal 50 mg free shipping. Addition of artesunate to chloroquine for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gambian children causes a signifcant but short-lived reduction in infectiousness for mosquitoes. Activities of artesunate and primaquine against asexual- and sexual-stage parasites in falciparum malaria. A randomized open-label trial of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with or without primaquine for elimination of sub-microscopic P. Primaquine clears submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes that persist after treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and artesunate. Single dose primaquine for clearance of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in children with uncomplicated malaria in Uganda: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging trial. Effectiveness of fve artemisinin combination regimens with or without primaquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an open-label randomised trial. Assessment of therapeutic responses to gametocytocidal drugs in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Predicting mosquito infection from Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and estimating the reservoir of infection. Substantial contribution of submicroscopical Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage to the infectious reservoir in an area of seasonal transmission. Features of recrudescent chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections confer a survival advantage on parasites, and have implications for disease control. Host heterogeneity is a determinant of competitive exclusion or coexistence in genetically diverse malaria infections. Association of house spraying with suppressed levels of drug resistance in Zimbabwe. Malaria cannot be diagnosed accurately with any one set of clinical criteria, as the signs and symptoms (fever, chills, headache and anorexia) are non-specifc and are common to many diseases and conditions. The appropriateness of particular clinical diagnostic criteria varies from area to area according to the intensity of transmission, the prevalent species of malaria parasite and other prevailing causes of fever (3). The concurrent incidence of other diseases with malaria may also affect its presentation. A Detailed weighting and scoring systems for clinical signs and symptoms of malaria 3 may improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis but still result in low sensitivity and specifcity (studies in The Gambia achieved a sensitivity of 70–88% and a specifcity of 63–82%). These methods may be too complicated to implement and supervise under operational conditions, and many of the key symptoms and signs of malaria in one area may not be applicable elsewhere (5, 6). A review of 10 studies indicated that use of the more restrictive criteria in clinical algorithms resulted in only trivial savings in drug costs in comparison with the use of a fever-based diagnosis, and, in areas of high prevalence, greatly increased the probability of missing malaria infections (7). Light microscopy Microscopy not only provides a highly sensitive, specifc diagnosis of malaria when performed well but also allows quantifcation of malaria parasites and identifcation of the infecting species. Light microscopy involves relatively high costs for training and supervision, and the accuracy of diagnosis is strongly dependent on the competence of the microscopist. Microscopy technicians may also contribute to the diagnosis of non-malarial diseases. Although nucleic acid amplifcation-based tests are more sensitive, light microscopy is still considered the “feld standard” against which the sensitivity and specifcity of other methods must be assessed. A skilled microscopist can detect asexual parasites at a density of < 10 per µL of blood, but under typical feld conditions, the limit of sensitivity is approximately 100 parasites per µL (8). This limit of detection approximates the lower end of the pyrogenic density range. Thus, microscopy provides good specifcity for diagnosing malaria as the cause of a presenting febrile illness. More sensitive methods allow detection of an increasing proportion of cases of incidental parasitaemia in endemic areas, thus reducing the specifcity of a positive test.

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Importantly purchase lamictal 200 mg amex, even after the first fracture has occurred buy generic lamictal 200mg online, there are effective treatments to decrease the risk of further fractures. Prevention, detection and treatment of osteoporosis should be a mandate of primary care providers. This Guide offers concise recommendations regarding prevention, risk assessment, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older. It includes indications for bone densitometry and fracture risk thresholds for intervention with pharmacologic agents. The absolute risk thresholds at which consideration of osteoporosis treatment is recommended were guided by a cost-effectiveness analysis. Synopsis of Major Recommendations to the Clinician Recommendations apply to postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older. Universal recommendations: • Counsel on the risk of osteoporosis and related fractures. After the initial treatment period, which depends on the pharmacologic agent, a comprehensive risk assessment should be performed. There is no uniform recommendation that applies to all patients and duration decisions need to be individualized. It is characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue and disruption of bone architecture, compromised bone strength and an increase in the risk of fracture. Osteoporosis affects an enormous number of people, of both sexes and all races, and its prevalence will increase as the population ages. About one out of every two Caucasian women will experience an osteoporosis-related fracture at some point in her lifetime, as will approximately one in 1 five men. Although osteoporosis is less frequent in African Americans, those with osteoporosis have the same elevated fracture risk as Caucasians. Medical Impact Fractures and their complications are the relevant clinical sequelae of osteoporosis. The most common fractures are those of the vertebrae (spine), proximal femur (hip) and distal forearm (wrist). However, most fractures in older adults are due at least in part to low bone mass, even when they result from considerable trauma. A recent fracture at any major skeletal site in an adult older than 50 years of age should be considered a significant event for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and provides a sense of urgency for further assessment and treatment. The most notable exceptions are those of the fingers, toes, face and skull, which are primarily related to trauma rather than underlying bone strength. Approximately 20 percent of hip fracture patients require long-term nursing home 1 care, and only 40 percent fully regain their pre-fracture level of independence. Although the majority of vertebral fractures are initially clinically silent, these fractures are often associated with symptoms of 5 pain, disability, deformity and mortality. Postural changes associated with kyphosis may limit activity, including bending and reaching. Multiple thoracic fractures may result in restrictive lung disease and lumbar fractures may alter abdominal anatomy, leading to constipation, abdominal pain, distention, reduced appetite and premature satiety. Vertebral fractures, whether clinically apparent or silent, are major predictors of future fracture risk, up to 5-fold for subsequent vertebral fracture and 2- to 3-fold for fractures at other sites. Wrist fractures are less disabling but can interfere with some activities of daily living as much as hip or vertebral fractures. Fractures can also cause psychosocial symptoms, most notably depression and loss of self- esteem, as patients grapple with pain, physical limitations, and lifestyle and cosmetic changes. Economic Toll Annually, two million fractures are attributed to osteoporosis, causing more than 432,000 hospital admissions, almost 2. Medicare currently pays for approximately 80 percent of these fractures, with hip fractures accounting for 72 percent of fracture costs. Due in part to an aging population, the cost of care is 6 expected to rise to $25. Despite the availability of cost effective and well-tolerated treatments to reduce fracture risk, only 23 percent of women age 67 or older who have an osteoporosis-related fracture receive either a bone mineral density test or a prescription for a drug to treat osteoporosis in the six months after the 7 fracture. Peak bone mass is determined largely by genetic factors, with contributions from 8 nutrition, endocrine status, physical activity and health during growth. The process of bone remodeling that maintains a healthy skeleton may be considered a preventive maintenance program, continually removing older bone and replacing it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when this balance is altered, resulting in greater bone removal than replacement.

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Biological Factors Contributing to Population-based Differences in Substance Misuse and Substance Use Disorders Differences Based on Sex Some groups of people are also more vulnerable to substance misuse and substance use disorders lamictal 25mg without prescription. For example order 100 mg lamictal with mastercard, men tend to drink more than women and they are at higher risk for alcohol use disorder, although the gender differences in alcohol use are declining. They also report worse negative affects during withdrawal and have higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Female rats, in general, learn to self-administer drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking more quickly, show greater symptoms of withdrawal, and are more likely to resume drug seeking in response to drugs, drug-related cues, or stressors. The one exception is that female rats show less withdrawal symptoms related to alcohol use. Differences Based on Race and Ethnicity Research on the neurobiological factors contributing to differential rates of substance use and substance use disorders in particular racial and ethnic groups is much more limited. Although these effects may protect some individuals of East Asian descent from alcohol use disorder, those who drink despite the effects are at increased risk for esophageal76 and head and neck cancers. Another study found that even low levels of alcohol consumption by Japanese77 Americans may result in adverse effects on the brain, a fnding that may be related to the differences in alcohol metabolism described above. Additional research will help to clarify the interactions between race,78 ethnicity, and the neuroadaptations that underlie substance misuse and addiction. This work may inform the development of more precise preventive and treatment interventions. Recommendations for Research Decades of research demonstrate that chronic substance misuse leads to profound disruptions of brain circuits involved in the experience of pleasure or reward, habit formation, stress, and decision-making. This work has paved the way for the development of a variety of therapies that effectively help people reduce or abstain from alcohol and drug misuse and regain control over their lives. In spite of this progress, our understanding of how substance use affects the brain and behavior is far from complete. Effects of Substance Use on Brain Circuits and Functions Continued research is necessary to more thoroughly explain how substance use affects the brain at the molecular, cellular, and circuit levels. Such research has the potential to identify common neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance use disorders, as well as other related mental disorders. This research is expected to reveal new neurobiological targets, leading to new medications and non-pharmacological treatments—such as transcranial magnetic stimulation or vaccines—for the treatment of substance use disorders. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance use disorders could also help to inform behavioral interventions. As with other diseases, individuals vary in the development and progression of substance use disorders. Not only are some people more likely to use and misuse substances than are others and to progress from initial use to addiction differently, individuals also differ in their vulnerability to relapse and in how they respond to treatments. For example, some people with substance use disorders are particularly vulnerable to stress-induced relapse, but others may be more likely to resume substance use after being exposed to drug-related cues. Developing a thorough understanding of how neurobiological differences account for variation among individuals and groups will guide the development of more effective, personalized prevention and treatment interventions. Additionally, determining how neurobiological factors contribute to differences in substance misuse and addiction between women and men and among racial and ethnic groups is critical. Continued advances in neuroscience research will further enhance our understanding of substance use disorders and accelerate the development of new interventions. Data gathered through the National Institutes of Health’s Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, the largest long-term study of cognitive and brain development in children across the United States, is expected to yield unprecedented information about how substance use affects adolescent brain development. Technologies that can alter the activity of dysfunctional circuits are being explored as possible treatments. Moreover, continued advances in genomics, along with President Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative, a national effort to better understand how individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle contribute to disease, are expected to bring us closer to developing individually-tailored preventive and treatment interventions for substance-related conditions. Neurobiological Effects of Recovery Little is known about the factors that facilitate or inhibit long-term recovery from substance use disorders or how the brain changes over the course of recovery. Developing a better understanding of the recovery process, and the neurobiological mechanisms that enable people to maintain changes in their substance use behavior and promote resilience to relapse, will inform the development of additional effective treatment and recovery support interventions. Therefore, an investigation of the neurobiological processes that underlie recovery and contribute to improvements in social, educational, and professional functioning is necessary. Prospective, longitudinal studies are in which data on a particular group of people are gathered repeatedly over a needed to investigate whether pre-existing neurobiological period of years or even decades. Studies that follow groups of adolescents over time to learn about the developing human brain should be conducted.

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